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Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century.Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, Manchester achieved city status in 1853.The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the domestic premises of the college house Chetham's School of Music and Chetham's Library.Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, and by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded, quickest, and most populous town of all Lancashire." During the English Civil War Manchester strongly favoured the Parliamentary interest.This article is about the city of Manchester in England.For the larger conurbation, see Greater Manchester Built-up Area.Manchester began expanding "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century as people flocked to the city for work from Scotland, Wales, Ireland and other areas of England as part of a process of unplanned urbanisation brought on by the Industrial Revolution.Engineering firms initially made machines for the cotton trade, but diversified into general manufacture.
Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Salford and Stretford.
A centre of capitalism, Manchester was once the scene of bread and labour riots, as well as calls for greater political recognition by the city's working and non-titled classes.
One such gathering ended with the Peterloo Massacre of 16 August 1819.
He was a diligent puritan, turning out ale houses and banning the celebration of Christmas; he died in 1656.
Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance.